Key points to be considered – Fish Feed Project.
A. Site & Project Selection:
a. Location: Condition of roads , availability of power , water and manpower , drainage & nature of soil , water level , federal and local regulations for pollution & air quality , attitude of local people and government towards a new feed manufacturing unit , taxation and subsidy rules etc. All these factors must be taken into consideration while selecting a site for feed mill.
b. Feed mill Design: Plant layout design plays an important part in the design and engineering phases of any industrial facility. Ease of operation; avoiding disturbance in material flow i.e. raw material & finish goods, sufficient space for turning of vehicles , space for movement of fire fighting vehicle, parking , other utilities like Boiler , Weigh Bridge , Electric Transformer , Bulk storage for oil & water as per ease in operating & material handling.
c. Warehouse size for Raw material & Machines: Minimum 12000 sq. ft. godown for raw material , finish goods & machines is required to run 2 tph project . Project can be installed In-line , L shape or C shape as per space availability .
d. Provision for future Expansion: Selecting layout with no room for expansion is a mistake. Even with the best planning, most successful plants will make changes in future years that could not have been foreseen. Therefore, it is wise to allocate some area of the site for future growth and expansion. And always select the location of feed mill in such a way that there should be space for expansion towards the raw material godown (In direction of chain conveyor).
B. Machines & Technology- Desired Features :
a. Hammer Mill: Can Provide 250 micron average particle size with minimum power consumption & operational cost, low in maintenance & ease in operation.
b. Mixer: Can provide good homogeneous mixed feed with minimum heat generation & CV <=5.
c. Extruder: low Power consumption, provision of steam & water addition, VFD at Main motor & Cutter assembly, Heavy duty gearbox, can provide 0.8 mm to 5 mm pellet, ease in operation & low in maintenance. Good grade – hardened alloy steel material for screw & barrel with precise machining.
d. Dryer: Air quantity, feeding speed, belt speed can be adjusted as per requirement. Good grade stainless steel for better life. Ease in operation, low in power & steam consumption. Provision to clean last layer of bed – dust /left over material. Feed spreader – for uniform layer of feed. Adjustments for different diameter pellets – 0.8 mm to 5 mm.
e. Coater: Dosing adjustments with uniform spray arrangement.
f. Cooler: Good feed distributionarrangement for uniform bed level, adjustments in level sensors as per bed level required, minimum dead angles /corners to avoid cross contamination, provision of bed adjustment during power failure.
g. Screening: Good light weight design to minimize power consumption & fatigue failure. Self-cleaning provision for better efficiency.
C. Raw material or Formulation: Raw materials of floating fish feed mainly includes fish meal, fish oil, DORB, rice polish, de-oiled cakes, minerals & vitamins pre-mix. Starch, Protein, fat & crude fibre are major compounds of fish feed ingredients. If we talk about typical pangasius fish formulation – protein range is about 26-32 % , starch 18-22 % , lipids /fats -5-8 % &fibre approx. 8-12 % ( depends upon fish size, breed & weather condition ) .
D. Process & Operating Parameters:
- Particle size: Particle size before extruder should be in range of 220-250 microns.
- Moisture: Moisture range in raw material before grinding should be in range of 9-12 % , after extrusion in range of 18-24 % , after dryer : 14-18 % and after cooler below 10 % .
- Temperature: Temperature after extrusion should be in range of 110- 125 degree Celsius.
E. Cost of feed Production:Feed productioncost mainlyincludes:
a. Raw material: Considering a sample formulation as mentioned (just reference data):
Soya Doc – 220 kg @ 38-42 rs , Mustard oil cake – 185 kg @ 17-19 rs , wheat Flour – 220 kg @ 19-22 kg , rice flour -170 kg @ 19-22 kg , Fish Meal – 60 kg @ 37-40 rs , Shrimp meal – 70 kg @ 50-60 rs , Veg Oil -50 kg @ 55-65 rs , vitamin / Pre mix – 15 kg @ 180-210 rs , CMC,Anitioxidants , Carotenoid - @ 190-210 rs = average cost per kg of whole batch will be around 30-32 rs
b. Production cost: Production cost is inversely promotion to the quantity of feed produced – less for 5 TPH project & more for 2 TPH project. Production cost mainly includes – Power , Boiler & labor = Total of these three will be around 2.6-2.8rs /ton ( approx.)– considering 250 KW power connection for 2 ton project ( running + fixed charges ) + 0.5 rs /kg of wood + labor charges approx. 0.35 rs /kg of feed production.
c. Maintenance /Consumable parts –This includes cost of wearing parts like dies , cutters , screw , barrel , beaters , screens , elevator belts , pneumatic & electrical maintenance , gear oil , grease , water , stationery etc.
d. Over-heads /Staff: This includes staff salaries,incentives, travel expenses,security , dealer margin etc.
e. Packaging: That includes HDPE bag cost
f. Other indirect expenses: Includes marketing, branding &promotions, bad debts , bank interest etc.
F. Final Feed characteristics: Main Characteristic of floating fish feed is floatability as mentioned:
a. Floatability:The water stability of fish feed pellet refers to the performance of keeping constituent from dissolution and diffusion after fish feed soaked in water for a certain period time. Floatability mainly depends upon formulation & grains (specially starch content) , binding agents /oils in formulation , particle size , conditioning in pre-conditioners & gelatinization , heat –shear force & moisture in extrusion , buoyancy – combination of surface area – bulk density & water stability.